1. Figurative language- word or phrase that doesn’t have the same basic everyday meaning**figuratively speaking; not literally
Examples of figurative language include: onomatopoeias (sounds), similes (comparison between two things using “like” or “as”), metaphors (comparing two thing NOT using “like” or “as”), idioms (I have butterflies in my stomach/ It’s raining cats and dogs), hyperboles (I have asked you that a thousand times), personification (The wind whispered), etc.
2. simile – a comparison between 2 unlike things using “like” or “as”
Example: She was as clever as a fox.
3. metaphor- a directly stated comparison without using “like” or “as”
Example: Our defensive line was a rock wall last night.
4. onomatopoeia – the sound suggest the meaning (the attempt to spell out a sound)
Examples: boom, bang, growl, buzz, meow
**We heard the hiss of the snake and the buzz of the bees.
5. personification – giving human characteristics to inanimate objects or animals
Examples: The wind softly whispered in our ears. The leaves danced in the tree.
6. alliteration – The repetition of the same sounds or letter at the beginning of each (or most) of the words in a sentence.
Example: Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.
Ann ate anxiously as she waited her for Aunt Angie to arrive.
7. hyperbole – extreme exaggeration (to make something greater or worse than it really is)
Examples: I’ve told you a million times. I have a ton of homework. If I don’t get a puppy, I’ll die.
8. idiom – a phrase which has a different meaning than the literal meanings of each word.
Examples: Hold your horses, a piece of cake, give it a shot
9. stanza – a group of lines forming a unit in a poem (like a paragraph)
**2 line stanza is a couplet,
**4 line stanza is a quatrain
Example of a STANZA from Jack Prelutsky’s Be Glad Your Nose is on Your Face
“Be glad your nose is on your face,
not pasted on some other place,
for if it were where it is not,
you might dislike your nose a lot.”
10. rhythm – the beat in a poem *Nursery rhymes usually have rhythm.
Example: “Mary had a little lamb…”
“Twinkle, twinkle, little star…”
11. rhyme – two or more words which match in the same last sound
Example: cat/bat or flew/grew
12. mood – the feeling of a poem (could be pride, peace, sadness, fear, love, anger, etc.)
13. repetition – using a key word or phrases several times throughout a poem (used to emphasize or help the reader understand the topic better)
Example: Shel Silverstein’s Early Bird
Oh, if you’re a bird, be an early bird
And catch the worm for your breakfast plate.
If you’re a bird, be an early early bird-
But if you’re a worm, sleep late.
14. couplet – two-line stanzas that rhyme
Example: Don’t tell snow not to snow,
Don’t tell weeds not to grow.
15. sensory language – details from the five senses to add detail and depth to writing.
Example from Maya Angelou’s I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings:
They were flat round wafers, slightly browned on the edges and butter-yellow in the center